Scientists have discovered that an ancient method used to darken hair, dating back more than 4,000 years, is based on a chemical process that takes place at the nanoscale. This may be one of the earliest examples of nanoscience at work in a practical application. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Minuscule microbes wield enormous power over the Great Lakes, but many species remain a mystery Explore further Citation: Ancient Hair-Dyeing – A Nanoscience? (2006, October 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2006-10-ancient-hair-dyeing-nanoscience.html An elecron microscopy images of the cross section of a dyed strand of hair, showing portions of the cortex and cuticle. Dark spots are lead accumulations. The research team is led by Dr. Philippe Walter, a chemist with the Centre Nationale de Recherche Scientifique (National Center for Scientific Research) in Paris, France. For the past 10 years, he and his group have collaborated with the research department at L’Oreal, studying the history of cosmetic science. This study was inspired by one of their early projects, an investigation of ancient Egyptian cosmetics in which they analyzed samples preserved at the Louvre Museum. They demonstrated that the Egyptians used wet chemistry to synthesize lead chloride compounds, which were added to the black pigment lead sulfide (PbS), also known as galena, to confer medicinal properties to eye makeup, in order to treat eye illnesses. This practice is described in Roman writings dating back to the first century A.D.“Since that study, we have developed new research on materials from the Greek and Roman periods. When I found an ancient recipe dealing with the use of lead to dye hair black, I considered it another way to understand how ancient cultures developed lead-based chemistry for health and beauty needs,” Walter told PhysOrg.com. “We reconstituted the recipe and observed the formation of galena nanocrystals in the hair.”The use of lead compounds to create dyes was common during the Greco-Roman period, and similar formulas were still in use even up to modern times. A particular recipe that has been recorded in several places over the centuries consists of a mixture of lead oxide (PbO) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), with a little water added to form a paste that is then applied to the hair. Scientists have known that the blackening of the hair is due to the precipitation of PbS crystals during the treatment, in which the sulfur comes from a reaction with keratins (the amino acids present in hair proteins). However, this is the first time that scientists have uncovered the finer details of the process.In a paper describing the work, published in the September 1, 2006, edition of Nano Letters, Walter and his colleagues report the shape and distribution of the nanocrystals within the hair, which they gathered by detecting the compound’s lead ions using x-ray analysis and electron microscopy. The PbS nanocrystals are about five nanometers in size on average, but clump together in globular 200 nm aggregates. They collect mainly in the hair’s cortex (the middle layer), and tend to arrange themselves in lines along the axis of the hair. These lines are about 8-10 nm apart, which roughly matches the distance between long, thin keratin fibers, or “microfibrils,” in the cortex. Thus, it appears that the alignment of the galena nanocrystals is induced by the organization of the microfibrils.What is particularly surprising about the reaction, Walter remarks, is that the galena particles easily crystallize and organize within the hair, a biomaterial, despite the structural complexity of hair and its relative inertness. He adds that the nanocrystals are quite similar in appearance to PbS “quantum dots” synthesized using modern materials science techniques. “But unlike modern nanotechnology, this dyeing process is characterized by basic chemistry methods and was developed thousands of years ago with low-cost, natural materials,” he says.Currently, he and his group are studying how other metal ions crystallize and diffuse within hair and are assessing the feasibility of using the hair structure – its “matrix” – as a nanoreactor. Being able to better control the growth and organization of nanoparticles in an organic material could lead to new advances in the development of nanomaterials.By Laura Mgrdichian, Copyright 2006 PhysOrg.com
Researchers with Deakin University in Australia have conducted a study of the native Australian water bird banded stilt and have found it has truly unique migration behavior. In their paper published in the journal Biology Letters, the team describes how they attached satellite transmitters to several specimens and what they learned by tracking the birds for over a year. Emerging solar plants scorch birds in mid-air Journal information: Biology Letters Banded stilts are interesting birds, of that there is no doubt—colored like penguins with humming bird like beaks, they tend to congregate on seashores. But what makes them truly interesting, is that they somehow figure out when rain has fallen very far inland on a normally dry desert and fly very quickly to the newly wet location—generally a temporary lake—nest until the lake dries up, and then fly back to the coast. While at such a lake, they feed on brine shrimp that appear only when there is water. In this new effort, the researchers monitored all this activity for the first time.The researchers captured 21 of the stilts and attached solar powered tracking devices to their legs—that allowed for monitoring them for up to 13 months. In looking at the data, the researchers were able to follow the birds as they left the seashore and traveled sometimes very long distances (up to 1000 miles), nested and then returned. The distance is a record for a water bird, and the fact that the birds only migrate when the weather dictates makes it a one of kind. Adding to the uniqueness is it appears the birds are able to wait for two or three years to migrate if need be, putting off nesting. There’s also the mystery of how they find the temporary lake—at one point, the researchers noted that two birds took off from the same site and migrated close to a thousand miles using different paths.Despite the tracking, the researchers still have no idea how the birds know when rain has occurred so far away—though they suspect it has to do with an ability to detect low-frequency sounds or slight changes in atmospheric pressure. It’s even possible that they are able to smell the newly emerging brine shrimp. In any case, the unusual migration strategy appears to pay off—it provides the birds a relatively safe place to nest—one with an abundance of food. Explore further More information: Biol. Lett. October 2014 vol. 10 no. 10 20140547. DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2014.0547 Citation: Australian water bird found to migrate long distance when the weather dictates (2014, October 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-10-australian-bird-migrate-distance-weather.html © 2014 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Credit: Wikipedia
When we asked these alternate rock band artistes about the inception of the band, they excitedly narrated a fairy tale. And just as their story, this band believes in making original compositions and are fun and power packed as their performances. Here are excerpts from a candid conversation we had before they went on to perform at Hard Rock Cafe this weekend . Read on…What is the story behind the inception of the band? Once upon a time, in a land far far away (St.Xaviers college) Rohan and Ankit met in a bathroom during the college fest- Malhar. Later, Ankit asked Rohan to join the Jai Hind band that he was a part of and today we are here with a couple of line up changes here and there. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’A band usually go through its set of ups and downs, how is your experience so far?We’ve had our share of ups and downs, but we feel we’ve had it pretty good for the last 2 years. Even though we’ve had a recent lineup change, we feel we’ve recuperated fast and it has given us a whole new perspective. We’re glad we can finally get back to doing what we love to do the most – playing gigs, everywhere.Tell us about the chemistry you guys share off stage. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixWe started out with the band being the main connecting point between us. But over 2 years of being a band we’ve grown to become friends. Usually bands form due to friendship getting together to play music but we kind of did it in reverse.Why there is no girl in the band, have you ever thought of including one?We’ve had a female guest vocalist Vasuda Sharma, who is awesome and hyper-talented. But the band just fell into place so quickly that we didn’t really put a lot of thought into genders and the possibility of a female member. Tell us about your EP Attention Please?Attention, Please! is a four track extended play (EP) that we released in January 2013, and is our first proper release. We’re still pretty excited about it, it got the four songs that we were most confident about at the time. It was recorded at YRF with the Shantanu Hudliker and mixed by KJ Singh.How has the response been?It’s been great. We did a little tour to promote the EP in January for it too. We got favorable reviews from critics from major publications. It was also great to see a lot of musicians we look up to like Bruce Lee Mani, Rahul Ram, Koco, Warren Mendonsa among others, supporting and encouraging feedback us with the piece.What are the inspirations behind the tracks you make?Well, it differs from track to track. But each track has its own vibe and the lyrics usually come from a personal place. We put up in a way that tracks are relate-able to our audience.What message you want to put across to the listeners by your music?As commonly said, audience and artistes alike, we write and produce our own composition, we’re very excited about being in the indie music scene right now. It’s a time of change and we’re very grateful to be part of it. We make music for the listeners and as an artiste it is important to have an audience to perform to. The more connected to audience we are, the better it gets. With more and more people supporting Indian Indie by buying songs, attending gigs and festivals its at a very interesting place and will make more interesting compositions.Tell us about winning Best rock Artist by Radio City Freedom Awards?It was exhilarating, we are still pretty kicked by it. K.J Singh, who produced the EP won the Indian Recording Artists Association award for Best Produced Band at the Palm Expo too.Where are your next shows, any new tracks you guys are working on?We’re working on a couple of tracks with our new drummer, Joshua Singh. Apart from this gig we’re playing for The Scene gig at Arc Asia in Pune with some other well-known bands.
Jurrat, a week long campaign on violence against women was organised by Majma and Swaang.Swaang is best known for its song Maa Nee Meri which was created to protest the 16 December Delhi gang-rape.Majma is an emergent collective of diverse artistes and activists committed to progressive arts and media. Both these groups – Majma and Swaang, came together for a collective cry for breaking our silence, complicity and acceptance of violence, in both its stark and normalised forms. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The campaign which was launched at Stein Auditorium, India Habitat Centre on 10 December, moved from Mangolpuri to Bhalaswa Resettlement Colony to Seemapuri to Katwaria Sarai to many places in Delhi to make people aware of the violence that exists with the hierarchies of class, caste and patriarchy.A mobile concert accompanied by a rally of protesters and supporters started from the malls in Saket and moved through Mehrauli, Munirka and Mahipalpur on 16 December morning. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe aim was to remember the fight of the brave girl and to clean the memory of the horrible incident from his route through songs and performances.A sketch titled Thoda Dhyan Se was performed by Mallika Taneja. Her performance speaks about the imposed gendered notions on women regarding their choice of freedom and sexual rights. The play Museum… of species in danger directed by Rasika Agashe was received and appreciated by all.The play brings out the manifold forms of violence, sexual harassment faced by women in both public and private spaces. From mythological Sita to Bhanwari Devi –the play poignantly brings out the dark sides of the patriarchal society.The performers blended their personal experiences and the registered testimonies of oppression and violence on women together to make us aware of the issues. For a week Delhi witnessed a rich repertoire of cultural forms and public performances including poetry, music, theatre and exhibitions through this campaign.
Do you know that during the recording of the Beatles’ iconic song Norwegian Wood, one of the strings of the sitar played by George Harrison broke leaving him with no clue about how to replace it until he was helped by none other than Indian political activist in Britain Ayana Angadi. This and several other
Using gold nanoparticles, South Korean scientists have created an ultra-thin and stretchable wearable device that can provide continuous heart rate monitoring. The device could lead to improved personal and mobile health-monitoring systems.The researchers said that currently available wearable devices such as watches and bands are not suitable for all situations. “Rapid developments in wearable electronics have led to an urgent demand for deformable electronic devices,” the researchers said. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’“Most deformable memory devices reported so far, however, are just flexible. These kinds of memory devices are not compatible with wearable applications that require complicated modes of mechanical deformations such as stretching,” they said.Future wearable systems that pursue mobile healthcare monitoring and data analysis based on high-performance bioelectronics should monolithically integrate various stretchable electronic components, such as sensors, amplifiers, and memory modules. However, there have been limited studies for system-level demonstrations using high performance, stretchable, non-volatile memory and related electronic devices. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix“The stretchable, high density, and ultra-thin memory array with the enhanced charge storage capability has great potential for various wearable electronics applications,” they pointed out. The circuit of the device made from a stretchable silicon membrane containing gold nanoparticles which are regarded suitable for long-term memory storage. The findings appeared in the journal Science Advances.
All happiness depends on a leisurely breakfast. Being the most important meal of the day, breakfast is all about breaking the night long fast you were unconsciously keeping while asleep. It is a known fact among travelers that breakfast in hotels and guest houses can only be availed until a particular time, for which you might have to wake up early and rush. But is it not unfair, that you did not get that much-needed sleep for the sake of breakfast? Well, for people who second this thought, there’s Elan at The Lodhi, New Delhi, at your service as they provide breakfast throughout the day! Also Read – Add new books to your shelfIf you are coming from a faraway land and especially are the victim of jet lag for crossing time zones, you might need breakfast in the middle of the night upon waking up. Therefore, to make things more convenient, Elan had come up with a brilliant idea of an array of breakfast combinations for guests. With an unlimited service of freshly baked goods and bread baskets at your table, you may as well try your hand at curating your own a-la-carte meal. Furthermore, you can order as many servings as you like of a dish of your choice – that’s all you need for a heavenly meal. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveAnd like always, meaningful conversations happen over a cup of hot steaming beverage and some baked delights. With a view of the sunny lawn outside, you can take all the time in the world and spend some quality time with your significant other over a platter of fresh seasonal fruits and muffins.If you are new in India and want to try out some desi items like Parantha, Dosa or Upma, you’re in for a treat. In case you have a fetish for seafood, the bagels are a must try out; order some delicious smoked salmon and cream cheese or pesto bagels and have it your way! If you are fond of continental cuisine, try the egg benedict, pancakes or the smoked salmon and definitely their fresh and warm waffles. These crunchy fluffy-on-the-inside patterned breakfast confections are mouthwateringly remarkable. With a dash of maple syrup on the surface, the cold touch of an ice cream makes the perfect breakfast complete. You may also choose from their already curated list of American, Japanese breakfast and much more. It must be true that “Only the pure in heart can make a good soup,” like Ludwig van Beethoven had once said. Among the new additions to their menu is the Chinese breakfast which comprises of an amazing Conjee, noodle soup, and buns. If you have a palate for light Chinese food, you would grow a craving for the delicious Conjee! The delicate rice is well complemented with the natural flavours of chicken and mushroom making it a simple yet tasty soupy breakfast item.With an eclectic range of filling items and bitings on the menu, Elan is welcoming for anybody looking for an informal tucking-in experience.
Kolkata: SSKM Hospital may soon get clearance from the state Health department to conduct heart and lung transplants.The hospital authorities have already built adequate infrastructure in this regard. If everything goes according to plan, the SSKM will get the nod from the Health department in the next few months. A senior official of the hospital said: “We have so far witnessed heart transplants at a government hospital but the idea of lung transplant is not only new in the city but also in the entire Eastern region. Also Read – 3 injured, flight, train services hit as rains lash BengalCalcutta Medical College and Hospital (CMCH) is the only government-run hospital in the state that has obtained clearance from the department to perform heart transplants. CMCH has already conducted two heart transplants. But no government hospital has the permission to perform lung transplants. “Necessary infrastructure is being built at the hospital in this regard. A lung transplant is at a very early stage in the country. Some acute COPD patients often need to undergo lung transplants. Children with Cystic fibrosis also require the same,” a senior official of the SSKM Hospital said. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedSSKM had applied for clearance in August 2018. It has also submitted a detailed project report to Swasthya Bhawan before Puja this year. A survey was carried out in this regard considering various aspects. As a part of infrastructure revamp, a heart failure clinic has also been operating at the Cardiology department of the hospital since last year. The doctors at the Cardiology department of the hospital would examine and treat heart failure patients at the clinic. A senior official said the doctors would try to cure heart-related problems of the patients through medicines but those who would require heart transplants would be referred to the same unit that is to come up at the Cardiothoracic Vascular Surgery (CTVS) department of the hospital.
As the India International Trade Fair 2017 came to an end on Monday, team ITPO received all the appreciation it deserved by C R Chaudhary, Minister of State for Commerce and Industry, Government of India. The minister said that it was a challenging task to hold the mega institutionalized event such as IITF just in half the space of the exhibition complex while retaining its original format with a controlled and regulated visitors movement. He expressed his happiness over the success of the theme “Startup India, Standup India” this year as it is imperative for young entrepreneurs and employment generation. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfPresent on the occasion were L C Goyal, Chairman and Managing Director, ITPO, Deepak Kumar, Executive Director, ITPO, J Gunasekaran, General Manager, ITPO, participants from India and overseas.L C Goyal also commended ITPO as well as all supporting agencies for putting their best foot forward on logistics, cleanliness, business generation, enhanced participation, security, access control measures and visitorship. Referring to the vision of the Prime Minister that India needs ‘job creators rather than job seekers’, he announced that ‘Enterprises from Rural Areas’ would be the theme for the next edition of IITF 2018. “It will encourage new age entrepreneurs and artisans in rural and semi-urban three and four tier cities,” Goyal said. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveWhile expressing his satisfaction over the safety and security management by the Delhi Police, Traffic and Civil Defense in the fair, he indicated that there was a 70 percent reduction in the crime rate with not a single eve-teasing incident in the fair and Delhi Police deserves a standing ovation for the same. He hoped that IITF 2019 would be the largest ever as it would be organized in the world-class Exhibition–cum-Convention Complex at Pragati Maidan. C R Choudhary presented the awards in different categories. While Assam won the gold medal, the silver medal was presented to Kerala and the bronze medal to Lakshadweep in the States and Union Territories category. Special appreciation certificates were also presented to Punjab and Maharashtra.In the Foreign Pavilions, Tillo Hediyelik Esya, Turkey conferred the gold medal and Afghanistan Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ACCI) and Ministry of Commerce, Afghanistan won the silver. Bronze was taken away by Curio Tour Travel Co. Ltd., Thailand Special Appreciation Certificate was presented to Asian Lucky Industrial Limited, Hong Kong. In the Ministries and Department category, the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation bagged the gold medal. Ministry of Power and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare received the Silver Medals. While Special appreciation certificates were received by the Ministry of Earth Sciences and Ministry of Steel. The Department of Post, Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited and the Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) received the Gold, Silver and the Bronze Medal respectively in Public Sector Undertakings, EPCs, Commodity Boards, Banks & other Govt. Departments/Organizations Category. Special Appreciation Certificate received the National Mission for Clean Ganga. In the Private Sector, M/s Shree Shyam Tilpatti Udyog won the Gold Medal, Orkus received the Silver Medal and IFB Industries Limited bagged the Bronze Medal. Calix Herbal received the Special Appreciation Certificate. The Socialist Republic of Vietnam ‘Partner Country’, Kyrgyz Republic ‘Focus Country’ and Jharkhand ‘Partner States’ were also honoured. In his welcome address, Deepak Kumar, Executive Director, ITPO highlighted new initiatives taken by ITPO for the convenience of participants and visitors in the fair. (PICS: Naveen Sharma)
Love to gorge on beef jerky, salami, hot dogs and other processed meat as part of your evening snacks daily? Beware, these processed meats laced with chemicals such as nitrates, to preserve them from spoilage, may contribute to mania – an abnormal mood state characterized by hyperactivity, euphoria and insomnia, a study has found.The findings showed that people hospitalised for an episode of mania had more than three times the odds of having ever eaten nitrate-cured meats than people without a history of a serious psychiatric disorder. Also Read – Add new books to your shelf”We looked at a number of different dietary exposures and cured meat really stood out. It wasn’t just that people with mania have an abnormal diet,” said lead author Robert Yolken, Professor at the Johns Hopkins University in the US.Nitrates have long been used as preservatives in cured meat products and have been previously linked to some cancers and neurodegenerative diseases, so Yolken suspected they may also explain the link to mood states such as mania. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveFurther, in experiments on rats, those who received the jerky showed irregular sleeping patterns and hyperactivity similar to that seen in patients with mania – increased activity during normal sleep times and in new environments.However, when the animals were fed on nitrate-free meat, they behaved similarly to a control group. “It’s clear that mania is a complex neuropsychiatric state, and that both genetic vulnerabilities and environmental factors are likely involved in the emergence and severity of bipolar disorder and associated maniac episodes,” explained Seva Khambadkone, doctoral student at the varsity. “Our results suggest that nitrated cured meat could be one environmental player in mediating mania,” Khambadkone added.Moreover, the animals with nitrate in their diet had different patterns of bacteria living in their intestines than the other rats and had differences in several molecular pathways in the brain that have been previously implicated in bipolar disorder.”Future work on this association could lead to dietary interventions to help reduce the risk of maniac episodes in those who have bipolar disorder or who are otherwise vulnerable to mania,” Yolken said.